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Biographical reference


Alexei Pakhomov (1900-1973) is known as a brilliant graphic artist and master of lithography. He was born in autumn 1900 into a family of simple peasants in the Volgograd province. His outstanding artistic talents became evident in his early childhood. In 1915, the young artist entered the Sсhtiglitz’s School of Technical Drawing in Petrograd. From 1922 to 1925, Pakhomov studied in the Academy of Arts. Shortly after his graduation Pakhomov proved himself as a self-sufficient master.
In 1926, the artist was one of the founders of the “Artists’ Society” association and took part in all exhibitions held within this society up to 1931. In 1927, Pakhomov’s art works are exhibited at the picture-show of the Soviet Art in Osaka, Japan. A year later the artist worked with the magazines “Chizh” and “Yezh”, besides he created marvelous illustrations for children's books by E. L. Schwartz, S. Marshak, G. Krutov and others. In 1932, Pakhomov was elected to the First Directorate of the Artists’ Society Leningrad branch. Since 1936 he created drawings for the belles-lettres collection “Kostyor” and continued working until the end of his life.
At the beginning of World War II Pakhomov lived in Leningrad. Despite the blockade he continued working and created a remarkable series of lithographies entitled “Leningrad During the Siege”.
In 1946 he was awarded the State prize for this work. The first one-man show by Aleksey Pakhomov was held in 1951 at the State Russian Museum in Leningrad. In 1958 the artist was elected as an associate member of the USSR Academy of Arts, and in 1963 he was awarded the title of the RSFSR People's Artist. In 1973, Pakhomov was awarded the prize for one of his best works – illustrations for a collection of stories written by Lev Tolstoy. The artist died in 1973.
Aleksey Pakhomov is considered to be one of the best illustrators of children's books. His art works were exhibited in Amsterdam (“The Art of the Soviet Union”, 1929), Venice (“XVII Biennale”, 1930), Stockholm (“The Soviet Art”, 1930), Vena (“Russian Art Today”, 1930), Zurich (The Art Shoe of Volpberg, 1931), Prague (“The USSR Painting”, 1931), Pittsburg (The 30th Annual International Exhibition of Paintings, Carnegie Institute, 1931), Johannesburg (“Art from the Soviet Russia”, 1931), Saint-Louis (The 30th Annual International Exhibition of Paintings, Carnegie Institute, 1932), Venice (“XVII Biennale”, 1932) to name but a few.

 
  • Alexander Benois

    Alexander Benois

  • Alexander Rodchenko

    Alexander Rodchenko

  • Maria Kazanskaya

    Maria Kazanskaya

  • Viktoria Belakovskaya

    Viktoria Belakovskaya

  • Simkha Simkhovitch

    Simkha Simkhovitch

  • Valentin Serov

    Valentin Serov

  • Alexei Pakhomov

    Alexei Pakhomov

  • Franz Roubaud

    Franz Roubaud

  • Alexander Rusakov

    Alexander Rusakov

  • Viktor Proshkin

    Viktor Proshkin

  • Nicolai Tyrsa

    Nicolai Tyrsa

  • Konstantin Rudakov

    Konstantin Rudakov

  • Boris Kustodiev

    Boris Kustodiev

  • Vasiliy Vereshchagin

    Vasiliy Vereshchagin

  • Alexander Iakovleff

    Alexander Iakovleff

  • Georges Pogedaieff

    Georges Pogedaieff

  • Leon Bakst

    Leon Bakst

  • Nikolai  Astudin

    Nikolai Astudin

  • Tatyana Kupervasser

    Tatyana Kupervasser

  • Richard Zommer

    Richard Zommer

  • Boris Grigoriev

    Boris Grigoriev

  • Arthur Trevor Haddon

    Arthur Trevor Haddon

  • Natalya Goncharova

    Natalya Goncharova

  • Mstislav Dobuzhinsky

    Mstislav Dobuzhinsky

  • Konstantin Gorbatov

    Konstantin Gorbatov

  • dimitribouchene

    dimitribouchene

  • Ilya Repin

    Ilya Repin

  • Ilya Kabakov

    Ilya Kabakov

  • Nikolai Roerich

    Nikolai Roerich

  • Konstantin Korovin

    Konstantin Korovin

Alexander Benois

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    Biographical reference


Alexander Benois (1870-1960) was a famous Russian painter, graphic artist, stage designer and cinematographer. He was born in 1870 in Petersburg and his father was an architect. The future artist started taking drawing lessons in a private kindergarden. In 1887, he attended the Academy of Arts as an unenrolled student but left it in 1888 and continued working independently. Benois became a founding member of and played one of the leading roles at the “World of Art” association.
From 1893 to 1896 Alexander Benois exhibited at the Russian Society of Watercolorists. Late in 1896 the artist went to Paris for the first time where he created his famous “Series of Versailles”. In 1897 the works of Benois were shown at the Spring Exhibition at the Academy of Arts, in 1898 at the exhibition of Russian and Finnish Artists in Petersburg.
In 1900 Benois worked as a stage designer and was involved in designing sets for productions at the Hermitage Theater of Petersburg, the Mariinsky Theater, the Moscow Art Theater and the Bolshoi Theatre. From 1903 to 1922 the artist created illustrations for the “World of Art” and apart from this he also took part in all exhibitions arranged by this magazine. In 1914 – 1917 Benois created designs of panels and wall-paintings for the Kazansky Railway Station in Moscow. In 1921 the artist participated in the Russian Art Exhibition in Paris and in New York in 1924. A year later Benois’ works were exhibited at the Charpentier’s Gallery in Paris at the “Art in the Theater” exhibition.
Alexander Benois emigrated to France in 1926 where he was primarily involved in designing sets and costumes for such theaters as “Comedie Française” and “Grand Opera”, and later for the famous “La Scala” in Milan.
Alexander Benois exhibited at picture shows in Brussels (The Exhibition of the Russian Art, 1928), Berlin (1929), Belgrade (The Exhibition of Russian Art, 1930), Amsterdam (The Exhibition of Russian Masters Paintings), Paris (from 1931 to 1934), London (Decorations and Costumes for Russian ballet productions, 1936) and in other cities around the world. The artist died in 1960 in Paris.

Alexander Rodchenko

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Alexander Rodchenko (1891-1956) is recognized as a Russian painter, graphic artist and photographer. He was born in Moscow in 1891 into a family of a theater property man. Between 1910 and 1914 he studied at the Kazan Art School and later at the Moscow Stroganov School. Rodchenko began submitting paintings to exhibitions in 1916. He participated in important exhibitions of the Russian avant-garde, as well as in architectural competitions and activity of a commission for a pictorial, sculptural and architectural synthesis. In 1917, Rodchenko became one of the founders of the professional commonwealth of artists-painters. From 1918 to 1922 the artist worked as the head of the museum bureau; he was a member of the artistic board at the fine art section for the People's Education Commissariat. Besides, Rodchenko was a member of the group “Oktyabr’” and the Artists Society for the graphics section. During 1920 and 1924 A. Rodchenko was a member of the Institute of Artistic Culture. In 1920, he became a professor of the painting faculty. In 1923, Rodchenko together with V. Mayakovski were involved in polygraphy, photomontage and advertising graphics, they were members of the “Left Front” group. In 1924, the artist concentrated on photography. In 1928, he participated in the exhibition the “Soviet Photography for 10 years” in Moscow. Since 1932 the artist worked as a press photographer in IzoGiz, he was a member of juri and an artist designer of numerous photo-exhibitions. The artist was a member of the presidium of photo-section for the professional society of cinema photographers, as well of Moscow organization of the USSR Commonwealth of Artists. In 1936, Rodchenko participated in the “Exhibition of the Soviet Photo-art Masters”. The artist died in 1956 in Moscow.

Maria Kazanskaya

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Biographical reference


Maria Kazanskaya (1914-1942) was born in 1914 into the family of St. Petersburg intellectuals. By the time Kazanskaya finished her school, no places were available at the Academy of Arts and thus she started taking drawing lessons with Vera Yermolayeva.
Artistically, Kazanskaya chose to focus on emotional sensitivity, impulsive color, edgy contours and composition. Kazanskaya studied with Yermolayeva until December 1934 – the moment when she was arrested for “the involvement in anti-revolutionary activities in an effort to establish an illegal association abroad and spread anti-Soviet propaganda among people”.
Maria Kazanskaya was freed only in March 1935. She did not paint for a long time and stopped working altogether in September 1937. The young woman-artist died in 1942 during the blockade of Leningrad.
The last exhibitions of Maria Kazanskaya works were held at the Private Collections Museum “On the shores of the Neva River” (2001), in Benois’ section at the Russian Museum “Time to Collect” (April, 2008). Maria Kazanskaya’s art works have been made known to the wide audience only recently.

Viktoria Belakovskaya

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Biographical reference


Viktoria Belakovskaya (1901-1965) was born in 1901 in Alexandria (Ukraine). Her father was a doctor.  In 1918 she entered the Department of Painting at the Institute of Fine Arts. She studied under the supervision of T.Y. Dvornikov and P.G. Volodikin. In 1923 Belakovskaya went to Petrograd where she started taking classes at the Academy of Arts at the workshop of K.S. Petrov-Vodkin. In 1927, the young artist graduated from the Higher Art and Technical Institute qualified as a painter. While at the Academy of Arts she met her future husband – Viktor Proshkin. In 1924 Belakovskaya exhibited for the first time at an exhibition in Vladivostok. The artist painted mainly landscapes, portraits and still-life paintings.In 1931, she participated in the All-Russian Exhibition of Artists in Moscow. In 1945, Belakovskaya became a member of the USSR Artists’ Society, but in 1949 she was excluded “for the bourgeois trends in art”.  
However, in 1953 when Stalin died she was reinstated.In 1976, shortly before the exhibition dedicated to the 70th anniversary of Viktor Proshkin, a fire broke out in the artists’ workshop and seventeen works of Belakovskaya were destroyed. The painter died in December 1965. Belakovskaya’s works are kept at the State Russian Museum, the State Museum of History of Saint-Petersburg, art galleries of Novosibirsk and Omsk, museums in Yaroslavl as well as at the museum of A. Akhmatova (“Fontanniy Dom”) and in private collections in Russia, Ukraine, Italy, France and the UK.  

Simkha Simkhovitch

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Biographical reference


Simkha  Simkhovitch (1885-1949) was born in 1885 in a bourgeois family who lived at Novozybkov of Chernigov’s province which is Bryansk region now. He entered Odessa Art School in 1905. After graduation in October 1911, he was enrolled to the Academy of Arts in Petersburg but was sent down few months later due to the allowed 3 percent quota for Jewish students. After expulsion he served as a private soldier of the 175-th Baturin’s regiment. In 1913, he entered the Academy of Arts again as an auditor student, he studied there till 1922 and graduated without degree work.
There was a Jewish society of Art Encouragement in 1915-1919. Their most noticeable action – an exhibition of the members of the society – took place in April-May 1916. Among those members we could find Simkha Simkhovitch. He took part in Moscow exhibition of Jewish artists in 1918. In 1919 participated in «Great Russian Revolution» art competition and won the 1st prize. Later on the competitive works were exhibited in Petrograd. In 1922 performed his works during the International book exhibition in Florence.
In the mid 1920’s Simkhovitch emigrated to the USA and where he became very popular shortly. US magazines published his works. Among others, the artist created some paintings dedicated to Russia.
He started cooperating with the gallery of Mary Sterner in New York and arranged his first one-man show there. This particular show as well as other exhibitions held at Mary Sterner’s in 1928, 1929, 1931 and one at the Middletown gallery in 1940 had been given coverage by the «Art News» magazine. Simkhovitch was a member of the Brooklyn Society of Artists; gave lessons in his own studio in the mid 1930’s. He was awarded the second Harris prize and the bronze medal of the Art Institute of Chicago in 1932, and the third prize by Museum of Worcester. Simkha Simkhovitch died in Greenwich, Connecticut in 1949.
Nowadays his works are in the permanent collections of the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, the Krakow Museum of Art and private collectors.

Valentin Serov

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Biographical reference


Valentin Serov (1865-1911) was born in 1865 in Petersburg, in a musical family. Between 1878 and 1879 he took lessons in painting with Repin I.E. In 1880, the artist to-be entered St.Petersburg Academy of Arts where his principal tutor was Chistyakov P.P. In 1884, Serov was awarded with the minor silver medal, shortly after he left the Academy and continued working individually, basically in the direction of portrait-painting.
In the 1890s Valentin Serov created portraits of various celebrities – the Sovereign Emperor, the Grand Duke Pavel Alexandrovich, the Emperor Alexander the IIIrd, A. Mazini, F. Tamanio, K.A. Korovin, I.I. Levitan, N.S. Leskov, N.A. Rimsky-Korsakov. Since 1897 the artist taught in Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture where among his students were P.V. Kuznetzov, N.N. Sapunov, M.S. Saryan, K.S. Petrov-Vodkin, N.P. Ulyanov and K.F. Yuon.
In 1895, Serov created a series of black-and-white illustrations of animals for fables by I.A. Krylov. In the late IXX- early XX centuries the artist became the highly popular portrait-painter in Russia ceding only I.E. Repin. Besides, Serov created some various heroic portrait characters and some versions of the pictures on the theme of the ancient mythology. Valentin Serov died in 1911 in Moscow.
In 1914, exhibitions of artist’s works took place in Moscow and St.Petersburg; in 2001, the exhibition dedicated to the artist’s 135th anniversary held at the Russian Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg; in 2004 the exhibition dedicated to the artist’s 140th anniversary was arranged in the art gallery “House of Naschokin”, there were exhibited the works of Serov from the State Tretyakov Gallery and various provincial museums.

Alexei Pakhomov

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Biographical reference


Alexei Pakhomov (1900-1973) is known as a brilliant graphic artist and master of lithography. He was born in autumn 1900 into a family of simple peasants in the Volgograd province. His outstanding artistic talents became evident in his early childhood. In 1915, the young artist entered the Sсhtiglitz’s School of Technical Drawing in Petrograd. From 1922 to 1925, Pakhomov studied in the Academy of Arts. Shortly after his graduation Pakhomov proved himself as a self-sufficient master.
In 1926, the artist was one of the founders of the “Artists’ Society” association and took part in all exhibitions held within this society up to 1931. In 1927, Pakhomov’s art works are exhibited at the picture-show of the Soviet Art in Osaka, Japan. A year later the artist worked with the magazines “Chizh” and “Yezh”, besides he created marvelous illustrations for children's books by E. L. Schwartz, S. Marshak, G. Krutov and others. In 1932, Pakhomov was elected to the First Directorate of the Artists’ Society Leningrad branch. Since 1936 he created drawings for the belles-lettres collection “Kostyor” and continued working until the end of his life.
At the beginning of World War II Pakhomov lived in Leningrad. Despite the blockade he continued working and created a remarkable series of lithographies entitled “Leningrad During the Siege”.
In 1946 he was awarded the State prize for this work. The first one-man show by Aleksey Pakhomov was held in 1951 at the State Russian Museum in Leningrad. In 1958 the artist was elected as an associate member of the USSR Academy of Arts, and in 1963 he was awarded the title of the RSFSR People's Artist. In 1973, Pakhomov was awarded the prize for one of his best works – illustrations for a collection of stories written by Lev Tolstoy. The artist died in 1973.
Aleksey Pakhomov is considered to be one of the best illustrators of children's books. His art works were exhibited in Amsterdam (“The Art of the Soviet Union”, 1929), Venice (“XVII Biennale”, 1930), Stockholm (“The Soviet Art”, 1930), Vena (“Russian Art Today”, 1930), Zurich (The Art Shoe of Volpberg, 1931), Prague (“The USSR Painting”, 1931), Pittsburg (The 30th Annual International Exhibition of Paintings, Carnegie Institute, 1931), Johannesburg (“Art from the Soviet Russia”, 1931), Saint-Louis (The 30th Annual International Exhibition of Paintings, Carnegie Institute, 1932), Venice (“XVII Biennale”, 1932) to name but a few.

Franz Roubaud

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Biographical reference


Franz Roubaud (1856-1928) was a painter who specialized in battle subjects, the author of the largest and most popular panoramic paintings. He was born in Odessa in June 1856 in a simple merchant family who emigrated from France to Russia. From 1865 to1877 he studied in the Odessa School of Drawing founded by the Art Society.
When Roubaud went to Germany in 1877 he entered the Munich Academy of Arts. He specialized in battle and panoramic painting during his study. He graduated from the Academy with success in 1883. Three years later Roubaud agreed to perform the order of the Museum of Tiflis to create series of paintings based on the history of Caucasian wars. His first panorama named “The Storming of Akhul’go Aul” was exhibited at the International Fair in Nizhni Novgorod in 1896. The artist was fully devoted himself to the Oriental theme. He frequently travelled to Caucasus and Central Asia to create new and new paintings.
In 1904-1912 Roubaud taught at the Academy of Arts and was a head of the battle painting studio. During this period he got the title of academician and became the active member of the Academy of Arts. The last panorama “Borodino Battle” created by the famous artist is located in Moscow on the Kutuzovsky Prospect. This picture dedicated to the heroes of the battle demonstrates the exceptional artist’s talent. It became his greatest art work. Franz Roubaud never went to Russia when the revolution happened in 1917. He settled in Munich and died there in 1928.

Alexander Rusakov

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Alexander Rusakov (1898-1952) was born in 1898 in the city of Sevsk of Orlov province in a family of a rural doctor. When he was very young he started taking classes in painting with the painter Ignatiev M. I. Shortly after he attended a private school of Zvantceva E.N in Petersburg. During 1918-1924 Rusakov studied at Petrograd State Facultative Art Workshops with Dubovskoy N.N., Kardovskiy D.N. and Braza O. E.
In 1926, Rusakov took an active part in establishment of the “Artists’ Association”. Since 1932 he became the member of Leningrad branch of the Artist’s Society. The artist presented his art works at numerous exhibitions, namely in 1928–29 he took part in the exhibition the “Contemporary Leningrad Artistic Groupings”, in 1930, in the First Municipal Fine Art Exhibition in Leningrad and Exhibition of the Soviet Art in Berlin, between 1932 and 1934 in the “Artists of RSFSR for 15 years” in Leningrad and Moscow, in the report exhibitions of Leningrad branch of the Artist’s Society (in 1937–1941, 1943, 1946, 1952).
During the World War II the artist lived in Leningrad kept on working and exhibited at the blockade exhibition in 1943. The blockade landscapes were recognized as the best works of the artist.
The first one-man picture show took place after his death in 1957. Exhibitions devoted to the artist's creative work had been held in Saint-Petersburg in 1998 and 2006 and in 2008 in Moscow. In 2007, the art works created by Rusakov were presented at the retrospective exhibition the “Artists Association” in Petersburg.
The works of Alexander Rusakov may be found in important public and private collections including: the State Russian Museum, museums and galleries of Saratov, Perm, Pskov, Odessa, Bryansk and the other art collections.

Viktor Proshkin

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Biographical reference


Viktor Proshkin (1906-1983) was born into a family of merchants in the town of Oboyan’, Kursk province. In 1924, he entered the Higher Art and Technical Institute in Petrograd where he was taught by Savinov A.I., Bobrovskiy G.M., Petrov-Vodkin K.S., Karev V.E. In 1929, Proshkin graduated from the workshop of Karev V.E. with a graduation work entitled “In the factory floor”.
The industrial theme was the principle one in Proshkin’s creative work. Since the artist visited construction of Kharkov plant in 1930, he created a series of pictures called “Traktorostroy” which was presented at the “Socialism Industry” exhibition in 1931. The same year the artist became one of the founders of the Leningrad establishment of the Artists’ Society and from 1938 to 1946 he held a position of the executive secretary.
In 1936, V. Proshkin was attracted by the aviation theme and created a series called the “Paratroopers”. A work from this series “A woman paratrooper in the air” was presented at the All-Soviet Union exhibition in Moscow held in 1937 and at the “Socialism Industry” in 1938.
In 1948, Proshkin started teaching at the Leningrad Higher Arts and Crafts College named after V.I. Mukhina, in 1951 he obtained the academic title of assistant professor. In 1957 the artist was appointed head of the common painting department and ten years later he obtained the title of painting professor.
In 1976 Y.N. Lukin who was the president of Leningrad Higher Arts and Crafts College at that time offered Proshkin to arrange a one-man exhibition dedicated to his 70th anniversary. The artist prepared 120 paintings but a fire broke out in his workshop and almost all works were destroyed.
Nowadays Viktor Proshkin’s works are shown in the State Russian museum, the State Museum of History of Saint-Petersburg, the Museum of Anna Akhmatova, Leningrad Museum of Military Defense, Cheboksary Art Gallery, the Art museums of Arkhangelsk, Krasnoyarsk, Yaroslavl, in a collection of contemporary art at the “Manezh” central showroom as well as in private collections in Russia, Italy, France and USA.

Nicolai Tyrsa

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Biographical reference


Nicolai Tyrsa (1887-1942) was born in 1887 in Aralykh village of Erivan province (nowadays Aralyk, Turkey) in a family of a Cossack’s array officer. During 1905-1909 Tyrsa studied at the Architectural Department at the Imperial Academy of Arts in Petersburg. From 1906 to 1910 he attended lessons with Bakst L. at school of Zvantzeva E. N.
When Tyrsa was young he was involved in studying the Old Russian art during several years. He reproduced wall-paintings and took part in its restoration. Also, he was engaged in decorative paintings of the town-houses in Petersburg.
In 1914, the artist presented his brilliant works with nude models and it was the first time when critics paid attention at him. Besides, the artist created landscapes, still-lives and interior scenes. From 1918 to 1922 Tyrsa had been teaching at the Academy of Arts in Petrograd and during 1924 - 1942 at the Institute of the Civil Engineers in Leningrad.
The artist was one of the founders of the Soviet School for children's books illustrations. Since 1921 he focused on the book graphics. The first his work in this direction was the design of the book “Comedy about Tsar’ Maximilian and His Indocile Son Adolf”. Nicolai Tyrsa created illustrations for such books as “The Palace Siege” by V. Kaverin, “Republic ShKID” by G. Belyh and L. Panteleev, “The Snow Book” by V.V. Bianka, “The Military Horses” by N.S. Tikhonov, and “The Childhood” by M.Gorky. In 1940-41, Tyrsa was involved in design of glass-wares (decanters, glasses, and vases) working with V. I. Mukhina in the plant development shop specialized in production of mirrors in Leningrad. On January 29, 1942 the sick artist had been evacuated from the blockade Leningrad to Vologda where he died on February, 10.

Konstantin Rudakov

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Biographical reference


Born in Petersburg in 1891 into a family of the Mariinsky Theatre decorator Konstantin Rudakov became a Russian painter, graphic artist and scene-designer. The artist to-be started taking classes in painting and drawing at P. Chistyakov’s workshop in Tsarskoe Selo. In early 1910s he attended the “New Artistic Workshop” under the supervision of B.M. Kustodiev, E.E. Lansere and M.V. Dobuzhinskiy. In 1913, Rudakov entered the Higher Art School of Pictorial Art with the Imperial Academy of Arts to the Department of Architecture but two years later he decided to transfer to the Department of Painting under the supervision of D.N. Kardovsky. Rudakov graduated in 1922.
Since 1918 the young artist started presenting his works at different exhibitions. He was the member of the “World of Art” Association and the “Artists Community” as well as the Association of Revolutionary Russian Artists. In 1923, the artist created illustrations for the magazines “Chizh”, “Yozh”, “Begemot” and “Krokodil”. Since 1929 the artist taught in the Higher Art and Technical Institute and a year later he started collaboration with a children's section of the State Publishing House and created numerous illustrations for such books as “Eugene Onegin” by A.S. Pushkin, “Nona” by E. Zola, “Anna Karenina” and “War and Peace” by L.N. Tolstoy, “Revisor” by N.V. Gogol and others.
Between 1938 and 1940 the artist worked for the Experimental lithographic workshop of the Leningrad Branch of Artists’ Association and since 1940 he created the designs of the costumes for theatric performances of Leningrad Academical Theater named after A.S. Pushkin. K. Rudakov died in 1949 in Petersburg.
The artists’ works are kept in the State Russian museum, the State Tretyakov Gallery, as well as in numerous private collections.

Boris Kustodiev

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Biographical reference


Boris Kustodiev (1878-1927) was born in Astrakhan into the family of a seminary teacher. Being fifteen years old, he started taking private lessons from Vlasov P., a graduate student of the Academy of Arts. In 1896, the budding artist completed his studies at the seminary and left for Petersburg. He entered the Academy of Arts where he attended Repin's studio from 1901 to 1903. Repin invited the young artist to be his assistant when he was commissioned to paint “The session of the state council” (The Russian Museum, Petersburg). In 1903 Kustodiev graduated with a gold medal and obtained the right to a one-year pensioner trip abroad and around Russia. Prior to the graduation the young artist took part in international exhibitions in Petersburg and Munich and was awarded a gold medal by the International Association.
In December 1903 Boris Kustodiev spent six months in Paris where he attended Rene Menard’s studio. In 1904 the artist became a founding member of the “New Artists’ Society”. From 1905 to 1907 he created caricatures for a satirical magazine called “Zhupel” and later for “Adskaya Pochta” (“The Hellish Post”) and “Iskra”. In 1907 Kustodiev became a member of the “Russian Artists’ Association”. In 1909 he was elected as a member of the Academy of Arts. After the Revolution, the artist created illustrations for “Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District” by Leskov N.S., “Rus’” by Zamyatin E.I. and other books. Boris Kustodiev died on May 26, 1927 in Leningrad.

Vasiliy Vereshchagin

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Biographical reference


Born in Cherepovets in 1842 in a family of the leader of the district nobility. Vasiliy Vereshchagin became one of the talented artist specialized in battle subjects. During 1850- 1859 he attended Alexandrovsky Pupil Corps located in Tsarskoe Selo and the Sea Cadet Corps in St. Petersburg. There he took interest in drawing and dedicated all spare time for it. In 1858, Vereshchagin started attending lessons for irregular students at the Drawing School of St. Petersburg Society for the Encouragement of Artists.
In 1860, Vereshchagin brilliantly graduated from the Cadet Corps however, he sent in resignation and entered the Academy of Arts which he left in 1963 and went to Caucasus. The pictures depicting domestic scenes and landscapes of Caucasus were his first works. In 1864, the artist came to Paris where he entered Ecole des Beaux-arts and studied at J.L.Gerome’s workshop. In 1865, he made his second trip to Caucasus and visited Georgia and Armenia. In 1867, the artist left for Turkestan where the military operations happened. Shortly after this trip Vereshchagin created “Turkestan series” which he presented at his first one-man exhibition in London in 1973 and later in Petersburg and Moscow in 1874. In 1881 and 1882 Vereshagin arranged one-man exhibitions in Paris, Berlin, Hamburg, Dresden, Dusseldorf, Brussels and Budapest. In 1883, Vereshchagin exhibited and sold the pictures of Balkan series in Moscow and Petersburg, the main art works were acquired by P.M. Tretyakov. Besides, from 1889 to 1891 the artist presented his works at the one-man exhibitions in Vienna, Frankfurt am Main, Prague, Leipzig, Koenigsberg, Amsterdam, Stockholm, London, Liverpool, as well as in the cities of USA.
Since the declaration of the Russo-Japanese war on February 28, 1904 Vereshagin had gone to the acting army located at the Far East and perished in Port Arthur when the flag battleship “Petropavlovsk” had been exploded.

Alexander Iakovleff

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Biographical reference


Alexander Iakovleff was born in 1887 in Peterburg, in the family of a naval officer. From 1905 to 1913 he attended the Academy of Arts, D.N. Kardovskiy’s workshop. At that moment Iakovleff was attracted to graphics and started creating drawings for the magazines “Apollon”, “Satirikon”, later “Noviy Satirikon” and “Niva”.
Since 1909 A. Iakovleff started presenting his works at the exhibitions. During 1913-1915 he lived in Italy where he studied an ancient painting and created some pictures which he exhibited at the “World of Art” on return to Petrograd in 1915. In 1917, the artist became one of the founders of the “Section of St. Luke Painters”. This year the artist was sent as a pensioner to Mongolia, China and Japan. Later on he created the series of works about China. In 1924-1925 A. Iakovleff took part in an expedition to the North and Central Africa sponsored by “Citroen” company. The pictures and drawings created in this period brought the artist a significant success. In 1926, Iakovleff was awarded the Legion of Honour. In 1931-32, he travelled to the Orient over again. He visited Syria, Iran, Afganistan, Mongolia and China. In the 1920’s the works of Iakovleff were often exposed in the rooms of the Academy of Arts. In 1934, the artist was offered to be the Professor of the Academy of Arts in Boston. A. Iakovleff lived and worked in USA until 1938. He died in 1938 in Paris.

Georges Pogedaieff

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Biographical reference


Georges Pogédaïeff  (1894-1971) is a Russian stage designer, graphic artist. He is known as noble-born Godunov. He was born in 1894 in a district called Pozhedaevka in the Kursk province. In 1908, the future artist took drawing lessons with Tsioglinsky Y.F. In 1915 Pogédaïeff entered the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture and in 1916 he transferred to the Imperial Academy of Arts.
In 1918 Pogédaïeff started working as a set designer in Petrograd. He designed sets and costumes for ballet productions of the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow. In 1920, the artist emigrated to Romania where he worked for the National Theatre in Bucharest. Shortly thereafter he went to Prague and started designing sets for Anna Pavlova’s ballet company. From 1921 to 1924 the artist lived in Berlin and Vienna. Pogédaïeff was also involved in designing sets for Russian repertoire performances in Madrid and Barcelona. The artist gained a reputation for his marvelous illustrations for books by Gogol N.V., Lermontov M.U., Dostoevsky F.M., Chekhov A.P. to name but a few. The artist’s one-man exhibitions were held in Berlin (1922), the salon “Neie Gallerie” in Vienna (1924), at the Parisian Galleries of Reymann L. (1946). The artist died in 1971 in Paris.
The art works by Georges Pogédaïeff’s are kept in museums of Berlin, Paris as well as in Russian and overseas private collections.

Leon Bakst

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Biographical reference


Leon Bakst (1866-1924) is a Russian artist who was an outstanding stage designer. He was born in 1866 in Grodno (Belorussia) in an ordinary Jewish family. The future artist was attracted to drawing since his childhood and after graduation from the high school he attended classes at the Academy of Arts as an unenrolled student. Later on, Bakst left the Academy to work independently as an illustrator for children's books and magazines.
In 1889, Leon Bakst presented his works at an exhibition for the fist time. In the early 1890’s he exhibited at exhibitions arranged by the “Watercolorists’ Society”. Later, the artist became a founding member of the “World of Art” association where he gained fame by creating graphic works for an eponymously named magazine. From 1893 to 1899 the artist lived and worked at studios of French artists in Paris. In 1898, Bakst exhibited at the first picture show of Russian and Finnish artists, the “Secession” exhibitions in Munich and at an exhibition arranged by the “Russian Artists Association” as well as at various art exhibitions held in Berlin, Venice, Prague, Rome and Brussels.
In the early 1900’s, Bakst started creating stage sets and since early 1907 he was fully committed to this and worked in Paris. The artist designed stage sets for Greek tragedies and S. Diaghilev with the Ballets Russes (“Cleopatra”, “Shakherezada”, “Carnival”, “Narcissus”, “Daphnis and Chloe” and others). In 1914 Leon Bakst was elected as a member of the Academy of Arts. The artist died in December 1924 in Paris.

Nikolai Astudin

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Nikolai L. Astudin (1847-1925) is a Russian and German artist. He was born in Moscow in a family of diplomats,the Major of Nicolai II Imperial Guard. He started taking painting classes in Petersburg and in 1862 left for Paris where he took classes given by A. Cassagne who was a Professor of Landscape Painting. The artist frequently travelled to Italy and Finland. During 1876 - 1878 Astudin exhibited his works at one-man shows in Berlin and later in 1885 in Zurich.
Nikolai Astudin became famous through his landscapes and urban views. His works are exhibited at numerous museums and galleries in Western Europe as well as in private collections all over the world.

Tatyana Kupervasser

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Tatyana Kupervasser (1903-1972) is a Russian artist. She was born in 1921 in Saint-Petersburg. From 1921 to 1924 she studied in the workshop of K.S. Petrov-Vodkin at the Higher Art and Technical Institute where she met her future husband A. Rusakov.
In 1926, T. Kupervasser became a founding member of the “Artists Society” and participated in all exhibitions held by this society until 1929. In the 1930’s the painter was involved in decorative work and applied graphic art. In 1934, 1936 and 1940 she exhibited at picture shows of Leningrad artists. Tatyana Kupervasser died in Leningrad in 1972.

Richard Zommer

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Richard Zommer (1866-1939) is known as а Russian painter, watercolorist and graphic artist, one of the founders of the Tiflissi Society of Fine Arts. He was born in Munich in 1866. Since 1884 he studied as an unenrolled student at the Emperor Academy of Arts in Petersburg. During education Richard Zommer was awarded with a range of medals for meritorious work. In 1893 he finished education qualified as a third degree artist.
Zommer worked in Central Asia (1890-beg.1900s) and Transcaucasia: in Georgia (1912-1917), Armenia and Azerbaijan. The artist created numerous pictorial and graphical works mainly having a genre-ethnographical character. Pictures with common and battle scenes as well as views of Turkestan’s architecture, landscapes of ancient blocks in Tashkent, Bukhara, and Samarkand were very popular among his contemporaries. Since 1894 Zommer’s art works were presented at the exhibitions of “Saint-Petersburg Artists’ Society”, later at annual Autumnal exhibitions and exhibitions of the “Russian Watercolorists’ Society”.
Nowadays Zommer’s art works are shown in the State Russian Museum, the Regional Omsk Museum of the Fine Arts, the Regional Museum of Arts in Tula, the State Azerbaijan Museum of Arts (Baku), the Museum of Culture and Art History in Uzbekistan (Samarkand), the Republican Art Museum of North Ossetia.

Boris Grigoriev

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Boris Grigoriev (1886-1939) is a famous Russian artist. He was born in 1886 in Moscow in a family of а bank governor. Between 1900 and 1907 he studied at the Stroganovsk College of Arts and Crafts in Moscow and from 1907 to 1913 he attended classes given for unenrolled students at the Imperial Academy of Arts in Petersburg. Boris Grigoriev rose to fame when he was a student; in 1913 he presented a substantial series of drawings at the “World of Art” exhibition which he created in the spring of 1913 in Paris.
In the 1910’s Boris Grigoriev was considered to be one of the most highly-paid and prestigious Russian portrait-painters. Later in the 1920’s while working in America he managed to keep this status. The artist painted dozens of portraits of almost all representatives of Russian intelligentsia of those days, namely Chaliapin F.I., Dobuzhinskiy M.V., Roerich N.K., Klyuev N.A., Gorky M.M., Shestov L.I., Rozanov V.V., Brick L. and Kerensky A.F. Grigoriev also created the genre scenes of Paris, New York and Santiago, landscapes of Europe, North and South America. The artist created illustrations for books of A.S. Pushkin, F.M. Dostoyevsky, M.E. Saltykov-Shedrin, I.S. Turgenev, M. Gorky, V. Kamnsky and S. Cherniy.
His work was exhibited widely in Rome, London, Milan, Paris, Boston and New York. Boris Grigoriev was also known as an author. He wrote several books under the pen-name of Boris Grie. Since 1919 Boris Grigoriev lived and worked in Berlin and Paris. The artist died in 1939 in southern France.

Arthur Trevor Haddon

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Arthur Trevor Haddon (1864-1941) an English painter was born in 1864 in London. In 1883 he won a three year art scholarship to the Slade School of Fine Arts in England. He also studied at the Royal Academy in London. From 1886 to 1887 the budding artist took classes given by Professor Alphonse Legros in Madrid and later studied painting in Rome and Madrid.
In 1883 Arthur Trevor Haddon started exhibiting his works at the leading London galleries. He was elected as a member of the Royal Society of British Artists. Later, the artist worked and lived in Rome for one year. In the early 1900’s several one-man shows were held in London: at the Leicester Galleries (1902) and the Chenil Galleries (in 1906 and 1908). Arthur Trevor Haddon travelled to North and South America and created scenes of the East, Spain and Venice. The artist died on 13 December 1941 in Cambridge.

Natalya Goncharova

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Natalya Goncharova (1881-1962) was born in the family of an architect engineer in the Ladyzhino village in the Tula province. In 1901 she entered the Department of Sculpture at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. In 1904 she obtained a minor silver medal for her sculptures and left the School. Goncharova started painting in 1900.
In 1906 Diaghilev S.P. invited the painter to participate in the Russian section of the Autumn Salon in Paris. In 1913 Goncharova created illustrations for books written by such poets as Khlebnikov V. V., Bolshakov K.A., Bobrov S.P. and others. In 1914, having been invited once again by Diaghilev S.P., she was involved in designing sets for “The Golden Cockerel” production by Rimsky-Korsakov N.A. In 1915 the artist went to Paris and became a stage designer for “The Russian Seasons”. During 1923 - 1927 Goncharova took part in exhibitions of Russian Art in Rome, Dresden and Bordeaux. When Diaghilev S.P. died in 1929, the artist continued designing sets and costumes for various theatres in Europe and America. However, apart from her theater work Goncharova continued painting and being involved in graphic design. In 1919 she settled down in Paris and concentrated on stage design. Natalya Goncharova died in 1962 in Paris.
Her art works are kept in numerous museum collections including the State Tretyakov Gallery, the State Russian Museum, the State Museum of Fine Arts named after Pushkin A.S., the State Central Theatrical Museum named after Bakhrushin A.A., the Center of Georges Pompidou in Paris.

Mstislav Dobuzhinsky

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Mstislav DOBUZHINSKY (1875–1957) was born into the family of an army officer in Novgorod. From 1885 to 1887, he attended the Drawing School of the Society for the Promotion of the Artists and between 1899 and 1901, he was trained by Anton Azbè and Simon Hollosy in Munich.

In 1902, Dobuzhinsky started submitting his works to the exhibitions and joined the Mir Iskusstva. From 1907, the artist worked for Moscow Arts Theatre, created the scenic designs for Diaghilev’s productions, the Big Drama Theatre, Lithuanian State Theatre and Metropolitan Opera in New York as well he created drawings and caricatures for the comic magazines Zhupel, Apollon, Satirikon and others.

In 1919, the artist became a director of Vitebsk Art School as well he taught together with L. Bakst at the private school of Zvanceva E.N. After the revolution, Dobuzhinsky was one of the curators at the Hermitage and read popular lectures on art.

In 1920s, the artist got the significant success in creating the book illustrations notably for H.C. Andersen’s The Swineherd (1917), N.M.Karamzin’s Poor Liza, N.S. Leskov’s The Perruquier (1922) and Dostoevsky’s White Nights (1925).

In 1924, Dobuzhinsky naturalized in Lithuania and left Russia. A year later, he worked for Riga Theater and in 1926-29, the Parisian Theater for N.F. Baliev’s The Bat. Between 1926 and 1929, the artist was a member of Parisian freemason's lodge where he obtained the third degree. Dobuzhinsky created illustrations for Y. Olesha’s The Three Fat Men. Started from 1929, he became the leading artist of Lithuanian State Theater and in 1935, left for England with theatrical company.

From 1939, Dobuzhinsky lived in USA where he wrote the memoirs. In 1957, he created scenic decorations for the ballet The Prisoner of the Caucasus on music by A. Khachaturian at The Central City Opera, New York.

He died in New York on November 20, 1957.

Konstantin Gorbatov

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Konstantin Gorbatov (1876-1945) was born in the town of Stavropol in the Samara province. He started learning painting in the beginning of 1890-s under the supervision of Burov F.E. in Samara. From 1896 to 1903, Gorbatov lived in Riga, studied at the polytechnic university and kept on studying painting at the workshop of Clark D. The artist moved to St. Petersburg in 1903 and entered the baron Stieglitz Central School for Technical Draftsmanship and then the Academy of Arts on the architectural faculty. A year on he switched on painting what he studied under N. Dubovskoy and A. Kiselev.
Gorbatov submitted his paintings to the academic exhibitions, exhibitions of the Society of Russian Watercolorists, Moscow Society of the Art Amateurs, the Society for Circulating Art Exhibitions and the Society of the Independent Artists. In 1910, the artist was awarded the Second Prize at the Spring exhibition of the Imperial Academy of Arts for his work “The Fish market on the Pskov River”.
In 1912, Gorbatov received a scholarship of the Academy of Arts and studied art in Rome and later he received an invitation from Maksim Gorky to live in Capri. The artist travelled a lot throughout Europe and in 1913, he was awarded an International Gold Medal of the Munich exhibition for his diploma work. In 1916, he received Kuindgi award. Gorbatov lived in Russia and worked in St. Petersburg as professor at the university. Artist’s works were in demand before 1922, the moment when the Revolution started. That year Gorbatov left Russia and settled on Capri in Italy. During four subsequent years the artist travelled throughout Europe and moved to Berlin where he came into a group of Russian painters-emigrants. Gorbatov’s works were a success before Hitler had came to power.
The artist died in Berlin in four weeks after the war ended on May 24, 1945.
Gorbatov bequeathed his works to the Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg as well the artist’s paintings may be found in the Moscow Regional Museum of history and Arts in New Jerusalem

dimitribouchene

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Born in the famous aristocratic family in Saint Tropez, France in 1893. In period since 1895 until 1912 lived in St. Petersburg. In 1895 he was transferred to Russia. In 1912 he graduated from the St. Petersburg school second, then went to Paris, where he was a member of Academy Ranson and became acquainted with Maurice Denis and Henri Matisse.

In 1913 he entered the history of the philological faculty of the St. Petersburg University. Bouchene was the youngest and last of the brilliant galaxy of famous artists association "World of Art", ended his days in emigration. Among the admirers of eighteen Dimitry Bouchene was Anna Akhmatova a great first met the artist in the summer of 1911. They tied a warm friendship which has passed the test of time and distance. Before his departure Anna posed him more than once, but many years later it was Bouchene who, with his closest friend art historian Sergei Ernst, made a reception for Akhmatova in Paris. In that memorable 1965 poetess returned from Oxford to the Soviet Union after France, and carried it on a particularly favorite places passionately loved her from youth city exactly by Bouchene. Deep sympathy linked him with Zinaida Serebryakova. Talking to the artist, she drew inspiration from the most difficult for her family's post-revolutionary period. Her famous portrait of the young Bouchene 1922 full of positive charisma, light and motive power.

In 1918 - 1925 worked as a junior keeper of the Hermitage in the department of porcelain and jewelry.

Famous, above all, as a theater artist, Dimitry Bouchene wholly belonged to the creative generation of artists, who personified the golden age of Russian scenery on the stages of Paris. In 1925 artist emigrated in Paris and his artworks became popular in the West but unknown in Russia. His career abroad, the artist began to develop patterns of fabrics and clothes for major French fashion house Jean Patou, Nina Ricci, Jeanne Lanvin and Lucien Lelong. Soon Bouchene acquainted with the Great Russian ballerina Anna Pavlova, and at the end of the 1920s, starts creating the costumes for her. He also enjoyed the patronage of Alexander Benois, which greatly assisted him in establishing a career in France. It is possible that Benois augured the rise and success of the young artist.

 

In addition to his work for theatre, the artist painted both landscapes and still lifes throughout his life. The series of superb gouaches reveals a new and little-known side of Bouchene. In his poetic landscape suites there are resonances of Italian painting of the 18th century, reflecting the compositional techniques of Guardi, Canaletto and Robert. The artist travelled extensively throughout Europe, but particularly loved Italy, as evidenced by his artworks. He drew creative inspiration from the country: landscape motifs spilled over into his set designs. Also he regularly painted scenes of France. The French landscapes, like the Italian ones, found expression in the artist’s theatrical scenery. Flower compositions are equally theatrical and in keeping with his costume designs. The luxurious bouquets are suggestive of tautly posed dancers in splendid costumes; they dazzle the viewer with the courtliness of their exquisite lines and their depth of colour.

 

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Ilya Repin

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The Future artist was born in 1844 5-th of august in small Chuguev town of Ukraine in military settler’s family. When he was 13 years old he got to the training school to iconographer, and after three years he was invited with team in neighboring provinces to decorate the church and paint an images. In 19 years old he came in St. Petersburg with big hope to get in Art Academy. Repine was delighted and felt an extraordinary mood rising after he got in coveted Academy. As he recognized it was “honey year of happiness”. It seems that no one of the artists didn’t describe so enthusiastic own love affairs as young Repine his first year in Academy about important lecture on descriptive geometry, sculpture classes, World History and fine art. Reverence for science, awe before all learning settled in him strong habit forever. In Academy he achieves violent success and even in one month after admission he put the first number for drawings.
The forming Repine as an artist was influenced by the, so-called, progressive democratic aesthetics and criticism. The composition that showed grand talent of young Repine and nominated him in the first rank of Russian artists was «Barge Haulers on the Volga» (1870 – 1873). This artwork aroused not only compassion for the oppressed people of slave labor, but also the belief in its power, the ability to fight against oppression. "Barge Haulers on the Volga" can safely be attributed to both the genre and historical painting. Repine showed an example how sharp social plot might be a subject of great artwork. Genre artwork, each of the characters is endowed with an individual characteristic, acquired monumental character, becoming a generalized image of modern life, not only revealing the contradictions of reality, but claims the people as a political force in society. Plastic strength and breadth of painting at that time were innovative. In 1871 for the painting of «Resurrection of Jairus's daughter» the artist received a gold medal and the right to go abroad as benefit. As a benefit artist Repine visited Italy and France (1873 – 1876), however, it has not made anything new and bright, then what was going on in European painting. In 1875 he exhibited his artworks in Parisian salon. In 1876 he came back before ending time of his benefit period. In the same year he was awarded the title of Academician for «Sadko» artwork made in France. On his returning to Russia in 1876 began a period of higher peak of his creativity, and continued after in 1882 he moved to St. Petersburg. In a matter of ten - twelve years Repine created the majority of his most famous works. He serves as a portrait painter, a master of domestic and historical picture. The portrait was not only the leading genre, but an undercurrent of creativity Repine in general. While working on large canvases, he systematically used the portrait sketches to determine the shape and characteristics of the characters. In 1874 he began to participate in exhibitions of Association of Traveling Art Exhibitions, a member of the Association since 1878. He presented at that exhibitions works such as "The Princess Sophia in the Novodevichy Convent in 1698" (1879), "Religious Procession in Kursk Province" (1883), "The Unexpected" (1884), "Ivan the Terrible and His Son Ivan on 16 November 1581 "(1885)," Cossacks writing a letter to the Turkish Sultan "(1891)," The arrest of the propagandist "(1892) and others. In 1880 - 1890 worked in the field of book illustration. In 1891 – 1892 in St. Petersburg and Moscow solo exhibitions of the artist were arranged.

 

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Ilya Kabakov

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Ilya Iosifovich Kabakov, b. 1933. Ilya Iosifovich Kabakov is a famous Russian artist, one of the most notable figures in modern art.
Ilya Kabakov is a pioneer of conceptualism – one of the most successful directions in soviet art. If we assume that all modern art is placed on the line, the works by Malevich would correspond to zero - the point of reference – while the creations by Ilya Kabakov – to one.
He was born in the city of Dnepropetrovsk in 1933, the son of a locksmith Joseph Kabakov and accountant Bella Solodukhina. At the age of 12 he started his study at the art school in Moscow and studied there for six years. In 1957, Kabakov graduated from the Surikov Art Institute in Moscow, specialty: graphic design. In the 1950s the artist designed books, experimenting with various forms of abstract art.
Since 1956, he illustrated books for publishing houses “Children's Literature” and “Malysh” and also was engaged in magazine graphics. In 1963 he joined the Union of Artists of the USSR. In the same period he entered the circle of non-conformist artists of Russian avant-garde.
Kabakov is an innovator in art: he rethought and implemented in new reality all the rubbish of Soviet post-Stalinist times. Subsequently he created his own model of the Universe, his own rules and laws.
He is one of the founders of the so-called Moscow Conceptualism, precisely that direction from which later emerged social art - one of the most famous directions in Soviet art of the 1970s-1980s, which was formed within the so-called alternative culture opposing the state ideology of those years. Like pop art, it is characterized by a mock-revelatory attitude to the images of popular culture in general. Social art has become a kind of aesthetic response to the dominance of official propaganda in the culture of that time. Using conventional symbols, slogans and signs of socialist agitation (hammer and sickle, stars, a pioneer salute, flag-bearers, the portrait of the leader, etc.), social art debunked in a playing manner their true meaning, thus liberating the perception of viewers from ideological stereotypes.
Kabakov has developed the concept of “total installation” which is a certain combination of several paintings, as well as texts, sounds and objects. In the eyes of foreign viewers, he was a great philosopher of painting art, and for his countrymen – one of the most controversial artists. Even the most sophisticated viewers find something new in his paintings: a microcosm of relations through which the history of the whole era is traced. “Total installation” is a term coined by the artist. It means the integrity of the work which cannot be understood by looking at it from the outside: to fully understand, it is necessary to go in and grow roots in it.
Dozens of books are dedicated to the artist’s phenomenon. His works and theoretical developments are studied and analyzed at the universities. Kabakov's paintings, exhibited in museums and galleries, are viewed with bated breath worldwide. It is unlikely that such an interest can artificially exist for such a long period of time.

 

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Nikolai Roerich

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Roerich Nikolai Konstantinovich was born 27 of September 1874, St. Petersburg – died 1947, Kullu, India.
Painter, stage designer, master of monumental painting, social activist, writer, scholar and poet.
Nikolai Konstantinovich Roerich was born in Russia, in St. Petersburg, 27 of Sep-tember in 1874, and was elder child in family of lawyer and notary father Konstantin and his wife Maria.
He grew up in a happy atmosphere of the Russian family that belonged to the upper middle class, with all the associated advantages of this status - for example, pos-sible contact with writers, artists, scientists, who were frequent visitors to the house of Roerich. At an early age he showed an interest and talent for a variety of occupations. When he was nine years old, a famous archeologist came for researches in that area and took young Roerich to the excavations of ancient graves. Exciting process of opening his own hands mysteries of forgotten centuries kindled in him a love for ar-cheology; that love stayed with him for whole life. Due to other contacts he developed an interest in collecting prehistoric objects, coins, minerals.
In 1883-1893, as a schoolboy, studied drawing with artist M. Mikeshin, a close friend of the family.
He showed interest to archeology, became a member of the Russian Archaeologi-cal Society. In 1894–1897 went to the excavations.
In 1893 he entered to the law faculty of St. Petersburg University and the Imperial Academy of Arts. Engaged in a landscape workshop of A.I. Kuindzhi, considered the advices of I.Repin.
In 1895, he met with V.V. Stasov, who then introduced him to many composers and artists of the time: Mussorgsky, Rimsky-Korsakov, Stravinsky, Fyodor Chaliapin.
Attending concerts at the Conservatory, he first heard the music of Glazunov, Li-adov, Arensky, Wagner, Scriabin and Prokofiev, and passionately loved music for his life. He was particularly close to Wagner, and later, working for the theater, he created a design to almost all of the composer's operas. Moreover, musical terms and analogies can be directly applied to the painting by Roerich.
He often associated the music with colors and color combinations, and apply these experiences in the design of operas. The end of 1890s brought a flowering of Russian art, especially in St.
Petersburg, where, under the leadership of Sergei Diaghilev, were formed the avant-garde groups and unions. Diaghilev was in law faculty at the University for a year or two earlier Roe-rich and was one of the first judges of him as an artist and researcher of Russian antiqui-ty.
One of the first achievements of Diaghilev with the princess Tenisheva M. and others was foundation of the "World of Art" magazine.
The magazine lasted a relatively short time, but had a great influence on the crea-tive community in Russia. "World of Art" declared itself an enemy of academism, sen-timentalism and realism, and introduced its readers - mostly intellectuals - with the Eu-ropean post-impressionism and modernist movement. Roerich was involved in production of the magazine and was a member of the editorial board, along with Alexander Benois and Leon Bakst, who later became his colleagues in the early stages of Diaghilev Russian Ballet.
Became interested in studying the history of Slavic Russia
In 1897, he conceived a great series of paintings «The Beginning of Russia. Slavs».
In 1897 performed the first picture of the series - "Messenger. Race to race has ris-en"- and presented it to the reporting student exhibition at the Academy of Fine Arts.
After the exhibition the painting was purchased by P.M. Tretyakov. For the «Messenger» Roerich got the title of the artist.

 

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Konstantin Korovin

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Korovin Konstantin Alekseevich 23 of November 1861 (Moscow) – 11 of septem-ber 1939 (Paris) Konstantin Korovin is the brightest representative of Russian Impressionism.
Among the artists who made a name for themself in the 80-ies of the XIX century and marked a new stage in the development of Russian art - and it’s Levitan, Nesterov, Serov, Vrubel - special, but so, also a place of honor belongs to Konstantin Korovin. His art was the brightest - literally and figuratively - the phenomenon of Russian culture in the late XIX - early XX century. His bright, racy, buoyant paintings, so unlike to Wanderers works, reminded and told about clear and delighted beginning always present in our lives.
Although most people thought that the creativity of young Korovin very exuberant and frivolous, the true connoisseurs of fine art understood that bear witness to the birth of a great master, a great colorist and a poet in painting.
Painter, graphic designer, architect, artist of arts and crafts was born and raised in a family of merchants and the Old Believers; paternal grandfather was the owner of Yamschitskiy carting, maternal grandfather - tea merchant.
The parents were addicted to the art and very often Korovins house was visited by I. M. Pryanishnikov and L. L. Kamenev painters.
The Konstantin father graduated of the University, the mother was good harp player and watercolor painter.
They both, in every way, get aim to awake in own children artistic inclinations and were helped in that by their friends – the artist, distant relative I. M. Pryanishnikov and landscape-painter L. L. Kamenev.
From an early age Kostya distinguished with rich imagination and fantasy, dis-played a keen interest to nature.
That’s why for his parents there wasn’t surprise when he, like his elder brother Sergey, who subsequently became popular artist, decided to enroll in the School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture.
In 1875 fourteen years old Kostya Korovin started to engage in architectural de-partment of the School, but a year later moved to the painting.
His teachers were brilliant masters, artists Wanderers V. G. Perov, I. M. Pryan-ishnikov, V. E. Makovskiy, A. K. Savrasov.
Not known for advances in the study of general subjects, Konstantin Korovin, recognized "colorist", was one of the first on special subjects.
Important to say, in study years Korovin preferred landscape, that will be most favorite genre in his career.
In 1881 he enrolled in Saint – Petersburg IAA, but year later, disappointed with outdated teaching methods, came back to Moscow and continued stady in V. D. Po-lenov’s workshop in Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture.
In 1886 he graduated the School with a rank of nonclass artist.
Since the middle - 1880s to 1890, headed the painting workshop of the Stroganov School of Industrial Art.
In 1885 due to Polenov Konstantin met with popular industrialist and philan-thropist, a man of rare artistic talent, Savva Mamontov, who was not only involved in process of studying music, poetry and sculpture, but supporting talented people.
Even in the 70-ies in his estate near Moscow Abramtsevo gathered famous artists, actors, poets, among them - Repin, Vasnetsov, Chaliapin and Stanislavsky.
In the 80-ies Mamontov’s section with Levitan and Vrubel was visited by Korovin too. Witty, lively and talented Kostenka Korovin, as he was called, quickly became the favorite person of society.

 

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